When is the best time for cataract surgery? As your age grows this may be the common question coming to one’s mind. Normally the lens of the eye is clear just as the lens on a camera. Light focuses and passes to the back of eye. At the age of 45 the shape of lens changes totally allowing it to focus on nearer or far objects simultaneously.
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As persons age increases proteins which is present in the lens breaks down as a result, to which lens becomes dusky and cloudy and the objects seen may appear blurry, which in short is known as cataract. A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s natural lens, which lies behind the iris and the pupil.
Vision loss is the most common cause of cataracts in people over the age of 40. 22 million people are suffering from cataract ay the age of 40 and more.
What Causes Cataracts?
· It occurs when protein is build-up in the lens that makes it cloudy. This prevents light from passing clearly through the lens, causing loss in the vision.
· New lens are formed outside the old lens, all the older cells are compacted into the centre of the lens resulting in the cataract.
· Nobody is aware for sure why the eye lens changes as we grow older? But the researchers have identified the factor that causes risk includes:-
Ø Inflammation or previous eye surgery
Ø UV radiations
Ø Family history
Ø High myopia
Types of cataracts:
- A cortical cataract:- characterized by white, wedge like opacities which starts in the corners of the lens and work in their own way to the centre in a spoke like fashion. Central nucleus is surrounded by the part of lens, and hence cataract occurs in lens cortex.
- A nuclear cataract:- it forms in the nucleus of the eyes. It is commonly associated with aging.
- A sub capsular cataract:– occurs at the backside of the lens. People addicted of taking high dose of steroids or people suffering from diabetes have the greater risk of developing sub capsular cataract.
- Age-related cataracts:- As the name itself is enough, this type of cataract develops as a result of aging.
Other factor that increases a person’s risk of developing cataract includes smoking cigarette, pollution of air, and high intake of alcohol consumption.
Symptoms of cataract eye:-
Cataract affects the vision slowly and gradually. Looking towards the piece of glass you may notice that your vision is getting blurred. It may also observe that colour does not appear as bright as they are. It may also affect the cataract, dealing with the symptoms you observe. When a nuclear cataract is developed first, it can bring a temporary improvement in your near vision, called “second sight.”
But unfortunately as the cataract grow, the improved vision is short lived and it gets disappeared. Cataracts forms slowly and cause few symptoms until they noticeably block light. The present symptoms may include:
· Cloudy, blurry vision
· During day time their occurs problem of glare
· Colour change
· From the oncoming headlights problem with driving at night
· Change in seeing perception
· Double vision
· Problem leading to shapes or shades
· Change in eye glass perception
· An eye exam is conducted to test how well you can see. Your doctor will also dilate your pupil in order to examine the condition of the lens and other parts of the eye. Such as
1. Visual activity test:- It tests the sharpness of vision of a particular person. This test is done to see how clearly a person can see the object. By using the eye chart.
2. Retinal examination:- The specialist examines the lens for signs of cataract with either a slit lamp. If signs of cataract are found, the specialist can also determine how dense the clouding is. The slit makes it possible for the doctors to look at the structures in small sections, and to point out the problem.
3. Slit lamp examination:- this acts as a microscope which allows the doctor to look at the structure in front of the eye.
Surgical treatment is not needed if the patient is found to be suffering from mild symptoms. At early stages stronger glasses and bright lights may helps to improve the vision. The following simple approaches may assist people who are not ready yet to have surgery:
- Person should use magnifying glass for reading
- Make sure that that glasses you are wearing is properly prescribed
- Usage of better lamps at your home ex halogen lights
- Reduce direct contact to sun rays and use sun glasses
- Try to avoid driving at night.
It is equally important for adults after the age 45 – 50 to see doctor every two years or annually. People suffering from diabetes may need to exam more regularly.